Relevant medical investigations show that the number of dust mites on the clothes and bedding of patients with asthma is directly related to the severity of the disease. That is, when the number of dust mites increases; the asthma is severe; when the number of dust mites decreases, the disease is relieved. It is proved that dust mites are important allergens that cause allergic asthma in humans.
The most suitable living conditions for dust mites are the temperature of 20~30℃ and relative humidity of 75%~80%. Dust mites feed on dander, grain and dust from humans or animals. According to the living conditions and food sources of dust mites, two principles can be followed to prevent them.
I. Change the temperature and humidity of the environment
The dust mites will die when the temperature is greater than 35°C, or less than 0°C for 24 hours; meanwhile, the humidity is less than 50% or greater than 85%.
II. Cut off the food sources
Cut off the food sources to achieve three goals:
- reduce the total amount of live mites;
- reduce the level of mite allergens;
- reduce the exposure to the first two；
Those who are allergic to dust mites can adopt effective methods or multiple methods to control the survival and growth of dust mites at the same time according to the specific environment in which they live and work. The following methods can be reference.
- Reduce indoor humidity
Controlling the relative humidity below 50% is the most commonly used method to control the level of mites and their allergens. It is easier to control humidity than to control temperature. Some tests have shown that if the relative humidity is 40% or 50%, even if the temperature is 25~34℃, adult mites will die within 5~11 days for dehydration. In mountainous countries or the northern part of the Middle East, mites and mite allergens are rarely present in these dry regions.
- Use packaging sleeves
Packing mattresses and pillows with special anti-mite materials is an effective way to reduce exposure to dust mites and their allergens. For allergy sufferers, it is recommended to use this method. The packaging material is made of plastic, breathable material, tinny fabric fibers or non-woven synthetic materials. Therefore, when buying pillow and mattress packaging materials, the aperture of the fabric is very important. The ideal material should be a comfortable, breathable fabric. Such a fabric is vapor permeable and has the capability of preventing the passage of mites and mite allergens. The width of young mites is generally greater than 50 microns that fabrics, less than or equal to 20 microns, can prevent the passage of all mites.
- Cleaning the bedding
washing seat covers, pillowcases, blankets, mattress covers, etc. with hot water (equal to or higher than 55℃) once a week can kill mites and remove most of the mite allergens. Washing with warm or cold water cannot kill most mites, but it can remove most allergens, because most allergens are water-soluble.
- Air cleaning/filtration
The main component of room dust is mites. Mite allergens are mainly related to dust particles larger than 20μm in diameter. Air flow makes it into airborne particles, which can cause allergies after inhalation. When the air is cleaned or filtered, the dust will be floating and indoor air can be allowed to circulate.
- Do not keep pets indoors
The temperature and humidity of animals ( such as dogs, cats) are close to the conditions for dust mites to breed. And a large amount of dander is also a fertilize food source for dust mites. Therefore, animals are the hotbeds of large amount of mites; those dust mites also can be carried to corners, rooms, and spread everywhere.